Saturday, May 16, 2020
With recent negative media coverage concerning police officers, police corruption has become a major topic. Police officers seem to be making more questionable and unethical decisions according to the media. With these questionable actions, the idea that police officers are corrupt has been a steadily growing opinion. I will be focusing this literature review on the history of police corruption, mostly in major cities/countries; the nature of police corruption; the ethics involved in law enforcement; causes for police corruption and finally possible solutions to police corruption. History of Police Corruption Since the start of policing in America, there have been major police corruption scandals, especially in New York City. Throughout the course of the last century, the NYPD has withstood at least six major corruption scandals which have resulted in commissions (Muraskin Roberts , 2009). For each of the commissions, they discussed the findings of the commissions and their attempts to prevent that form of corruption from happening again. However, it only seemed to solve certain aspects of those problems and not the whole problem. The findings of those commissions are especially important since they demonstrate that the behaviors and patterns of corruption have changed over the years. Police corruption is not a problem that is based only in one country, but a problem all over the world (Newburn, 1999). Police corruption is happening in major countries from theShow MoreRelatedPolice Corruption And Corruption1538 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbeen around for as long as the police have, is corruption. Police corruption has been defined as the abuse of police authority for personal gain (Police Corruption and Misconduct. Wests Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. 2008. The Gale Group 4 Dec. 2017) . Corruption can be as limited as one officer, or can be group of officers as well. There is the rotten apple theory, which attempts to explain police corruption and where it comes from. While all corruption fits under abuse of authorityRead MorePolice Corruption969 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPolice Corruption Second Essay for AJ 101 Krystal Lamas Victor Valley Community College Author Note This paper was prepared for AJ 101 for Mr. Ronald M. Field .M.A. Abstract Police corruption is a complex issue. Police corruption or the abuse of authority by a police officer, acting officially to fulfill personal needs or wants, is a growing problem in the United States today. Things such as an Internal Affairs department, a strong leadership organization, and community support are justRead MorePolice corruption770 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdefinition of Police corruption is a specific form of police misconduct designed to obtain financial gain, other personal gain, or career advancement for a police officer or officers in exchange for not pursuing, or selectively pursuing, an investigation or arrest. One common form of police corruption is taking bribes in exchange for not reporting organized drug or prostitution rings or other illegal activities. Another example is police officers misusing the police code of conductRead MorePolice Corruption968 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageselection law violations; (13) corruption of public officials; (14) copyright violations; (15) computer crimes; (16) environmental crimes; and (17) receiving stolen property This assignment requires us to write a paper on a form of white-collar crime that we feel is the must dangerous form and why. I feel the most dangerous form of white-collar crime is police corruption, which is also defined as public corruption. Public or police corruption is defined as; Public corruption involves a breach of publicRead MorePolice Corruption2291 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesand discretion in police work produces great potential for abuse. Police corruption has been a problem in American society since the early days of policing. An ancient natural tendency of human beings is to attempt to placate or win over those in positions of authority over them. This tendency is complicated in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s materialistic society by greed and by the personal and financial benefit to be derived from evading law. The temptations toward illegality offered to police range from freeRead MorePolice Corruption2879 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesStanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy corruption is defined as the abuse of power by a public official for private gain. Police corruption is the abuse of power by a police officer for their own personal gain. Police officers become corrupt mainly for monetary gain because most feel that police officers do not make enough money and they want to make more. Police corruption can be costly to society and it can even violate the rights of society. Police corruption can show favoritism to some and unfairness Read MorePolice Corruption3338 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesAnalysis of Police Corruption Police corruption is a complex phenomenon, which does not readily submit to simple analysis. It is a problem that has and will continue to affect us all, whether we are civilians or law enforcement officers. Since its beginnings, may aspects of policing have changed; however, one aspect that has remained relatively unchanged is the existence of corruption. An examination of a local newspaper or any police-related publication on any given day will have an articleRead MorePolice Corruption1032 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages In Edwin J. Deltarres book Character and Cops he explores three hypotheses for police corruption in the United States. Some are somewhat historical, but they are still relevant to the problem of corruption today. The first hypothesis is called the society at-large theory by former Chicago Police Superintendent O. W. Wilson. Wilson was superintendent of the Chicago Police Department during the early nineteen sixties. The second hypothesis is called the structural theory. The thirdRead MorePolice Corruption9501 Words Ã |Ã 39 PagesPolice Corruption: A Perspective View Into the Definition, Cause, Harm Randy Botelho BSLS Capstone, LS498-01 Ã¢â¬â Unit 9 Professor Odim December 17, 2011 Thesis Statement Corruption in law enforcement is not victimless and creates a negative perception of the United States legal system. Introduction There are few professions in the United States that are entrusted with protecting societyÃ¢â¬â¢s safety and system of laws that have been established throughout the course of AmericanRead MorePolice Corruption2732 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesPolice corruption is a complex issue. Police corruption or the abuse of authority by a police officer, acting officially to fulfill personal needs or wants, is a growing problem in the United States today. Things such as an Internal Affairs department, a strong leadership organization, and community support are just a few considerations in the prevention of police corruption. An examination of a local newspaper or any police-related publication in an urban city during any given week would most likely
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
HR challenges and strategy: Johnson Johnson Johnson Johnson Corporation is a well-known multinational company in the world. It was founded in 1881 and launched its first product in 1885 by three brothers named; Robert Wood Johnson, James Wood Johnson and Edward Mead Johnson. Robert Wood Johnson served as the first president of the company and work to improve the work performance of the company. Now the company has lunched more than 100 brands over these years to satisfy their customer. It supports the company based programs to improve health and create awareness. Along with its partners, it provides help to mothers and infants. Moreover, the company is working to support doctors, nurses, and other social organizations who areÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦To solve these challenges, the HR strategy of training and development can be deployed. Training is a process to improve and enhance the performance of workers. Most of the time training aim to sharpen and upgrade the capabilities of employees. Whereas, the development pro cess is initiated to develop new skills according to the future work needs. Training contributes in the betterment of current job activities while development deals with the skills which will be required in future. The training and development of employees will make the organization capable to deal with its competitors, minimize the ratio of conflicts and tension between the employers and employees and will also help in fostering the mission statement of organization. Effective Recommendation By implementing training strategies, employees stay abreast of the competition in other businesses thus giving them a competitive advantage; these training tools often enhance the capabilities of the employee making them a more valuable asset to the business model. But it is imperative to issue training not just to regular employees but also to those interchangeable within each department, for instance training for sales representatives in the advertising department allow firms to create new trends for marketing that set them aside from competition thus creating a competitive entry barrier from external threats. In an article titled Ã¢â¬Å"7 tipsShow MoreRelatedOrganizational Analysis: Human Resource Structure and Management2378 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesOrganizational Analysis Running Head: Organizational Analysis Organizational Analysis Introduction Human capital is the most important resource for an organization. The effective and efficient running of business operations is solely based on the performance of employees in the organization (Robbins Coulter, 2006). They create a liaison between the organization and its stakeholders and contribute towards its success and prosperity. Employees perform their duties and responsibilities at differentRead MoreFamily Dollar Human Resources Organizational Analysis7933 Words Ã |Ã 32 PagesSummary/Overview of Family Dollar II. HR Scorecard- Analysis of Survey Results III. Strategic HR Plan IV. Business Case V. References I. Executive Summary/Overview of Family Dollar EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This organizational analysis is an assessment of Family Dollar Inc., in regards to its overall strategic Human Resource functions. The analysis and recommendations are based on survey results, which wereRead MoreOrganizational Change Scenario Analysis On Human Resource Management Strategies1970 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesHRM CONSULTANCY REPORT FOR LANX TEXTILES UK, BY IKECHUKWU ONYEJEKWE 2016 SECTION 1: ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE SCENARIO ANALYSIS Unit 1: Human Resource Management Strategies Assumptions Ã¢â¬ ¢ My scenario organization is Lanx, the UK-based textile production company. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Let us assume the managers in Lanx have 1-year duration to resume in Delhi, India. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The company would undertake the training on intercultural communication within the 12 months period. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The 5 managers will go without their familiesRead MoreHuman Resource Management Affects Organizations Performance1141 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe issue of how the human resource management affects organizations performance has always presented in academic world. Many scholars have done a lot of theoretical and field work, trying to prove that the contribution and impact of human resource management on organizational performance. Human resource management provides direction and enhances competitiveness in organization, and becoming a strategic partner in helping companies improves its performance (Ajit Kumar Kar, 2012). However, when itRead MoreThe Analysis Of The Equitable Employee Relations Since The Year 19681542 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe research has a focus on the analysis of the equitable employee relations since the year 1968. It is important for the understanding of the employee working conditions that existed in the workplace for the purpose of forming a comprehensive u nderstanding and relations to the current environment of businesses and organizations. There has been a lot of progress since the period of the Dagenham, 1968, to the current time. This has been mostly due to the industrial action and legislative changes thatRead MoreJob Dissatisfaction Is A Result Of Turnover Intention Among Nashua City Employees852 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesor less contribute to job dissatisfaction, depending on the organizational culture and management behavior (Shahnawaz Jafri, 2009). The purpose of the study is to examine if job dissatisfaction that leads to poor job performance is related to turnover intention, or other factors such as employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ trust of the organization, human resource management practices, inadequate training, employees job attitudes, and the role of organizational justice (Karim Rehman, 2012). The studyÃ¢â¬â¢s findings will assistRead MoreHuman Resources. Sasnett Ross (2007) Notes That Ã¢â¬Å"The1185 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHuman Res ources Sasnett Ross (2007) notes that Ã¢â¬Å"the human resource frame focuses on the needs of people. Leaders will value the feelings and relationships of people, and assume the organization must meet basic human needs through facilitation and empowermentÃ¢â¬ (p. 2). From my position as the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s senior enlisted advisor, there were numerous documented advisements to allocate fiscal year funds to contract IBM integration specialists, conduct hands-on data integrator training, andRead MoreEssay about Intro to Human Resources1561 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesof questions originate from videos, 10% from assigned articles, 90% from lecture slides and book Example questions: 1. This job analysis tool uses the following scales to rate the importance of tasks: extent of use, amount of time, importance to the job, and possibility of occurrence. A. Fleishman B. Position Analysis Questionnaire C. O*Net D. Job Element Inventory 2. Your company is currently faced with a labor shortage. You need to correctRead MoreProject Report on Vodafone1093 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Report 3. Vodafone being a multinational-cooperation implies a Chain Of Command organizational structure in which authority runs through the organizational hierarchy. It extends from the upper level of the organization to the lower levels of the organization. Vodafone has different departments with a head manager in place this makes the employees and workers of the organizationRead MoreInfluence Of Organizational Culture On Corporate Performance746 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagessupport the proposition that organizational culture is found to be a filter through which leadership influences various performance outcomes. Human Resource Management Organizational culture affects corporate performance. Corporate culture is a deeply embedded form of social control that influences employee decisions and behavior. Culture is persistent and operates unintentionally. It is an automatic pilot directing employees in ways that are consistent with organizational expectations. Corporate
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss About The People Strive Their Survival Is Concerned? Answer: Introducation Food shortage is a global calamity facing many countries today. Being a basic need, people strive for it as far as their survival is concerned. Its demand has to be increasing day to day concerning the growth of population. For people to have a sustainable living standard, food counts as the most fundamental necessity. There are some factors which have been identified to cause food shortage globally. These factors are both natural and human oriented. In his book, (Brinkman 2011, p.56-78) stated that High population growth rate is one of the factors leading to increased food shortage." This happens in such a way that the rate at which the population of a country is growing is higher than the rate of growth of agriculture sector. This variation is considered to create a food shortage. Despite the existence of this challenge, there are scientific strategies that can be employed to solve it. Today being a world of technology, there are methods of scientific engineering that can be applied in the agriculture sector to help curb food shortage disaster. For example, use of machine tools such as tractors, packed quality seeds, water conservation methods and use of irrigation schemes. (Dieter 2013) outlines that Employing these practices can bring about large scale production of food and catch up with the population growth rate. Climate change also facilitates the existence of food shortage. It happens in a way that human activities such as industrialization compromise the atmosphere. This includes the release of harmful gases that disarranges the formation of clouds leading to global warming. This phenomenon affects the rainfall pattern causing severe droughts which make most of the landmass arid, and therefore not suitable for farming. Trying to remedy this phenomenon, there are systematic ways that can be applied to solve it. Conservation of the environment is a key factor that tries to solve unreliable climate changes. Like it has been observed earlier, there is a design in which the industrialization process can be approached and limit emissions leading to climate changes. For example using alternative biofuels in industries that have little or no emissions can control climate changes. A study by (Ison 2007, p.499-511) found that When these measures are observed the climate pattern can be maintained and improved. Through this, water shortage can be eliminated therefore influencing steady food production. Change of taste and preferences is another encounter that has facilitated exhaustion of some agriculture production processes. This is happening such that as the population grows, its diet preferences change too. It simply means people mostly in urban areas have opted to consume processed and canned foods including meat and dairy. According to ( Maloni 2006, p.35-52) The effect of this to the agriculture sector is that for the farmers who engage in agriculture for commercial purposes they are likely to shun away from it when the market is not positively responding. This effect undermines the agriculture sector regarding labor and attitude, therefore, leading to food shortage since large scale production becomes limited. To ensure that plenty of food is there for current and future consumption, people can standardize their consumption such that cooked food is not undermined. In his journal, (Walker 2007, p.1989-1993 ) attributes that the government can also amend initiatives that tend to fund farming practices and keeping it steady all the time. For example, it can fund farming societies by purchasing their products and providing them with quality farming necessities such as fertilizers and sprinklers. Design Process A design process has to be approached to solve the problem of food shortage. This includes a series of scientific steps that are aimed to result to a given expectation. When solving food shortage, a procedure method such as the establishment of authorized institutions providing quality seeds can reap a great benefit. Secondly, training experts on agricultural practices in high-level institutions can help solve illiterate that leads to poor production. The government can also provide family planning services that control population growth rate, as a design to solve the imbalance associated with food shortage. Encouraging research that continually develops plants and animal genetics can bring about quality production through the evolution of seeds and manure that aim at supporting quality agriculture practice. There are social norms that aim at creating awareness of an existing disaster. This awareness stirs up peoples mind to make a critical decision and also remind them of their role duties and responsibilities. For example following a statement by (Battisti 2009, p.240-244 ) illustrated that raising orange symbolism during the month of hunger action can give awareness that there exist some uncertainties concerning food provision. This can remind people of their farming duties and also create a concern in them of the future happenstance if the underlying issue is not addressed. Methodology Accessing data is one of the most fundamental processes when it comes to research. The methodology used to research the issue was the use of reliable sources from the internet and other scholarly reviewed materials. Putting into consideration that the sustainable issue has affected many people globally, getting the information proved to be easier than expected. However, the reliability of the information was the issue. Reference list Battisti, D. a. ( 2009). Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat. Science, 323(5911), pp.240-244. Brinkman, H. a. ( 2011). Food insecurity and violent conflict: Causes, consequences, and addressing the challenges. World Food Programme., 56-78. Dieter, G. a. ( 2013). Engineering design (Vol. 3). New York: McGraw-Hill. Ison, R. R. ( 2007). Challenges to science and society in the sustainable management and use of water: investigating the role of social learning. Environmental science policy, 10(6), pp.499-511. Maloni, M. a. (2006). Corporate social responsibility in the supply chain: an application in the food industry. Journal of business ethics, 68(1), pp.35-52. Walker, J. H. (2007). Household food insecurity is inversely associated with social capital and health in females from special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children households in Appalachian Ohio. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 107(11), pp.1989-1993
Thursday, March 12, 2020
Influence of the Age Factor on Second Language Acquisition essayEssay Writing Service Influence of the Age Factor on Second Language Acquisition essay Influence of the Age Factor on Second Language Acquisition essaySecond language acquisition is a complex processwhich depends on a number of factors, such as cognitive development, cultural background, personal abilities, motivation, socio-economic background, age and the level of native language acquisition. Age is one of the important factors which influence second language acquisition. In addition, the age has strong influence on the level of native language acquisition and thus has additional meaning for the study process. Multiple researches have been performed in order to trace the relations between the age and second language acquisition. All these studies agree that age has an extremely important influence on language learning and that different researches in this field may greatly contribute to the theory and practice of second language acquisition. A lot of authors such as Ellis (2008), Larsen-Freeman (2008) and Mayberry and Lock (2003) state that younger learners are more successful in language study than aged ones.Ã The interconnection between age and second language acquisition is evident and it is necessary to trace peculiarities of this connection. This study aims to trace correlation between the success of language acquisition and learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ age.FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITIONIt is important to explain the notion of second language acquisition. Under this process specialists understand the process of acquiring other but foreign language. Studies in this field are concerned with the investigation of the process where learner acquires any other but his first language. This process can occur both Ã¢â¬â in the natural surrounding and in the form of the organized study process.Ã The time of the beginning of study may differ significantly and may thus influence the results of the learning.First of all, it is necessary to distinguish factors which influence the learning process when it comes to second language acquisi tion. Different specialists name different factors. For example, Yigiter (1988) distinguishes three factors which have influence on language learning. These factors include the role of teacher, the leaner and his position, and the learning method.Ã Collier (1988) named leanerÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive style, progress in native language acquisition and social and economic situation as the most influencing factors.The age of learning is one of the most important factors in the process of second language learning. A lot of specialists believe that it has extremely important influence on the results of the study.CRITICAL PERIOD HYPOTHESESÃ Lenneberg (1967), one of the pioneers of the researches in the field of second language acquisition, expresses theÃ idea that there is a certain period of language learning which should be considered by teachers and educators. His ideas got name Critical Period Hypotheses in language acquisition and expressed a thought that there is a period during w hich language acquisition is easy and natural. The Critical Period Hypothesis can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the period during which a child can acquire language easily, rapidly, perfectly, and without instructionÃ¢â¬ (Richards Schmidt, 2002, p.145). During this period leaning process goes more successfully and the learners are more likely to achieve good results. This is explained by the fact that learning language is an innate characteristic peculiar to all human beings. It is regulated by the biological factors and they determine the certain period when acquisition is the most effective.Ã This period lasts from two years to puberty. Starting from the age of two human brain becomes ready to acquire new things and to create new connections and correlations between things and objects. As Lenneberg (1967) Ã states in his famous book Biological Foundations of Language at the age of two or three years the period when the language can be acquired easier than in other time of life. Th is period lasts till the age of puberty. During this period language acquisition gives the best results and this is explained by the peculiarities of human brain. Ã SoÃ according to this hypothesis during certain period of time human brain is naturally inclined to learn.This process lasts during childhood and youth and declines after puberty. Despite the fact that Lenneberg (1967) Ã himself names different time limits to this period, he still traces strong correlation between human activity and puberty. According to him after the period of puberty language abilities quickly become worse and the process of leaning becomes less effective. After puberty the functioning of brain changes in such a way that basic skill which are necessary for the successful language acquisition decline. Ã Ã During this period learners show the best results in second language acquisition.Ã Lenneberg explains the duration of this period from biological point of view and uses the notion of late ralization. Lenneberg believes that language function is an innate characteristic of human brain and the process of language acquisition is not the process of learning new things but rather the process of the activation of the function which already exists.Lenneberg presupposes that during the childhood and early youth the right hemisphere takes part in the process of learning language. According to him, in the beginning both hemispheres take part in the process and it has got the name lateralization. Lateralization is a process when two sides of the brain develop special function. With the flow of time right hemisphere loses its language function and it passes totally to the left one.Ã Ã As soon as this process is over, language acquisition become more difficult. Lateralization is usually finished by the age of puberty. So, after the age of puberty language acquisition becomes more difficult. Lenneberg made different research and spend much time to investigate the critical per iod of successful language learning. He compared pronunciation of people who started learning language before the puberty period and after it and came to the conclusion that people who start learning language later than puberty period can not acquire the right accent in contrast to children and teenagers who start second learning acquisition before puberty and speak with little accent or without accent at all. These argument are also supported by the study performed by Fathman (1975)Ã and Williams(1979).Ã Fathman summed up his research in the work called The Relationship Between Age and Second Language Productive Ability, Language Learning, and Williams in the article called The Modification of Speech Perception and Production in Second Language Learning. After several years of study of pronunciation they came to the conclusion that younger students were more likely to adapt the pronunciation of the language acquired while the older ones were more likely to speak with an accen t. These researches prove again the findings of Lenneberg about the critical period hypothesis. Later researchers have also proved his ideas about brain activity and connections between left and right hemispheres. Critical Period Hypothesis is an important notion in the study ofÃ the influence of age on second language acquisition. Despite the fact Lenneberg made his investigation a lot of years ago his ideas are still up to date and most of them are useful nowadays. Knowledge about Critical Period can become a powerful tool for teaches of the second foreign language and for those who wants to acquire it. The functioning of brain and the structure of human psychics definitely have an extremely important influence on the process of language study and this knowledge can increase teaching results to a great extent.OLDER LEARNERS AND SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITIONA lot of researches started taking for granted LennebergÃ¢â¬â¢s studies about age limitation (12-13 years) in the second la nguage acquisition. However, still there are researches (Singleton) which show that older learners are also successful in the second language and able to reach the same level or even higher as the young learners do. Singleton states that language capacity of some immigrants improves with time. He refers to Ervin-Tripp which took place in 1974 as an example: Ã¢â¬Å"Ervin-Tripp conducted of 31 young English speaking children who had been exposed to French for a period that spanned nine months. The results of Ervin-TrippÃ¢â¬â¢s research showed that the older students outperformed the younger learners in every field of the learning processÃ¢â¬ (Singleton, 2004, p.184). He also gives another example of Dutch learners who started learning English in the classroom after the age of twelve. These learners were able to gain native-like accent (Singleton, 2004).Ã However, these are single cases and more exceptions from the rule and even Singleton himself states that for the long run yo ung learners are able to reach more language proficiency than those who started learning the second language after twelve.Krashen (1979) also investigates this subject and presents short- and long-term results in the second language acquisition among children and adults. His conclusions are the following: adults and older children come through stages of morphological and syntactic development quicker than children, but early start or second language learning usually guarantees higher general language proficiency with the flow of time.STAGES of SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITIONThe process of Second Language Acquisition consitsts of 5 stages. Haynes (2007) marks out the following stages: Preproduction, Early Production, Speech Emergence, Intermediate Fluency and Advanced Fluency. The Preproduction stage is also called Ã¢â¬Å"the silent stageÃ¢â¬ and the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s vocabulary is up to 500 words at this period. At the Early Production stage the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s vocabulary grows up to 1000 words and he/she is already able to build up simple phrases and use short language forms. At the stage of Speech Emergency the vocabulary is about 3000 words and the learner builds simple phrases and sentences here. The stage of Intermediate Fluency presumes the vocabulary of about 6000 words and at this stage the learner is able to make more complex sentences and his/her comprehension of the second language is great. The last stage called Advanced Fluency can be compared with almost native speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s language abilities, however, it takes time to achieve it Ã¢â¬â around 5-10 years in average (Haynes, 2007).Halgunseth (2009), a SLA researcher, states that children can learn the second language in two ways: simultaneously or sequentially. Simultaneous learners are children under three who learn their mother tongue at home and acquire the second language in the kindergarten or other close surrounding. Young children from multi-language families also learn two or even mor e languages simultaneously: mum speaks German, for example, and dad speaks English. The child makes no difference between the languages and does not choose the favourite one. He/she subconsciously knows what language to use with a particular member of the family and does not mix them up. ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s brain allows them to learn more than one language. If children hear two different languages, they construct two different language systems in their brain. Each system corresponds to the one language. The construction of such systems reminds the process of language acquisition which occurs when the person stats learning not native language. Ã (Halgunseth 2009). If one language is more frequently used in the family and prevails over the second one, with time the child feels it and declinesÃ it. The frequency of the language usage may also depend on the time spent with the member who speaks the particular language.The sequent learning presumes the usage of one language as the mot her tongue (the main language) and introduction of the second language at extra classes or language school, for example.Ã Halgunseth (2009) Ã insists that the age factor is crucial for the simultaneous learning, while it is not so important for the sequent learning. The factors which influence the sequent learning are motivation and language capacity.CONCLUSIONIt is generally believed that younger learners are more successfully in mastering the second language. A lot of specialists believe that the younger the learner is, the easier the study process goes. In reality the relationship between and success in learning second language is complex . From the one side Critical Period Hypothesis theory states that early age is the best age for language acquisition, from the other side mystery in native language contributes greatly to the successful acquisition of the second language. There are specialists who doubt The Critical Period Hypothesis and state that older learners show bette r results than the younger ones. For example, David Singleton (2003) expressed an idea that Ã¢â¬Å"younger learners to do better in the long run in the matter of second language lexical acquisition is no more than a tendencyÃ¢â¬ (p. 22). In addition, other factors have also a very strong impact on language acquisition. A lot of authors state that surrounding and social factors have a very important impact on the study success. For example, if the person learns language in the class during lessons, his result will be different from the personÃ¢â¬â¢s results person who lives in the language environment and has an opportunity to hear the target language all the time. In addition, some specialists believe that older learners have better language competency and have better abilities for problem solving and thus can achieve better results in language acquisition. Different aspects of language are perceived differently by different age categories. Early learners show better results in learning pronunciation, while older students acquire grammar and syntax better. Language capacity is another factor which has an important impact on second language acquisition. Some people have natural ability to language study while others do not and these tendencies are only reinforced by age factors.
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Sport In Society - Essay Example Physical activity is an expression of emotion and competitive sport can have a beneficial impact when performed in favorable conditions (Cockerill, 1995). Sports participation generates transferable life skills and acquisition of motor skills can lead to enhanced self-esteem and self-efficacy. Fitness training has a beneficial effect on mood, performance at work, cognitive function and self-concept. It helps to ameliorate conditions like obesity and develop and maintain optimal fitness (Gilson, Cooke & Mahoney, 2005). Sport is an important factor in the development of the society which is why UNESCO has supported the demand to include physical education and sport in the Human Development Index (Schwery, 2003). Sport contributes to self-confidence and organizational skills. Sport is an essential element in the growth and development of the society. Its benefits are immense for the physical and mental well-being of an individual but much depends on the self-perception of an individual. the motivation and mood determine the outcome of participating in sport. Sport also fosters brotherhood and brings people together. However, globalization of sport is happening at a very fast pace. Globalization is inevitable and consumerism has given different dimensions to sport. It has led to heightened international understanding and cooperation; it has transcended national borders. Media has exploited the popularity of the sport and the sports people as the athletes are used for celebrity endorsements by marketers.
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Financial Statement Ratio Analysis - Essay Example (basic raw material) plus an oven to bake the cookies (plant and machinery), and also a place to keep the oven (premises). Plus, not to forget, skilled labor (You've got to know how to make cookies OR hire someone who can.). Last but not the least, your have to find a way to sell the cookies - either hire a salesman with a fixed pay or hire an agent with a fixed share in profits (Selling and distribution overhead). All these factors would sum up to be the 'Cost' incurred on making the cookies. Based on this cost, you may decide your expected 'Selling Price' and thus the 'Contribution' per unit. (Activity Ratios) Also, to keep things going, you would need enough money readily available for your short term requirements (like buying more raw materials, paying rent, electricity bills, wages to employees, etc.) as well as for long term requirements (paying off debts, more money for further expansion, etc.). Also, you very well know that your creditors will supply you material on credit only if you are worthy of it. i.e. you are able to pay them in time. (Liquidity Ratios) In both the cases, money doesn't come free of cost. Business should be profitable enough. Both the parties would again, check your credibility as well as the worthiness of the business. In the first case, you would be liable to pay a fixed interest to your bank, regardless of what you make. In the second, you've got to make enough money so that you and your friend are glad that you invested in the business. Therefore, to be sure of what you are doing, at every moment you would be analyzing your 'profitability ratios', like you would constantly be calculating your earnings as against your investments (EPS) and comparing it with what ever was the next best use of your money (opportunity cost). Further, you could even decide your debt-equity ratio - how much share in the profit should be sacrificed for funds and how much should you borrow from the bank. And if you make handsome profits, how much of it should be invested back in the business (retained earnings). Or maybe you have better uses for your money and decide to take a further loan against your business from the bank so as to free your capital and maximize your returns on investment (leverages). Thus, organizing your 'Capital Structure' is a very basic and important decision. The point behind this entire example is that the smallest of small business would require analyzing their basic ratios to know how well they are doing. Without comparing various financial figures (ratios) we cannot make an informed decision. Without these, you will never know what can go wrong with your business. Before staring any business you must know in advance what you may expect from the business and what you should be expecting in return for your time, effort and investment. At any stage of the business you must know how much have you given to the business and how much the business can return back and what is the present condition as well